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Pyramidal Inflammatory Deposits of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium and Outer Retina in Ocular Syphilis

      Purpose

      To evaluate the role of OCT in the diagnosis of uveitis secondary to syphilis.

      Design

      Consecutive, retrospective case series.

      Participants

      All patients 18 years of age or older with ocular syphilis from 2 tertiary referral centers.

      Methods

      All patients who were diagnosed with intermediate uveitis, posterior uveitis, or panuveitis secondary to syphilis were included in the study (40 patients representing a total of 62 eyes) to identify important imaging features to aid in diagnosis. Patients underwent confirmatory serologic testing, OCT imaging, and dilated examination by a uveitis specialist.

      Main Outcome Measure

      Hyperreflective retinal lesions on OCT.

      Results

      The mean age of the study population was 42.9 ± 12.16 years. Forty-five percent of the eyes included in this study harbored hyperreflective pyramidal lesions of the outer retina and retinal pigment epithelium on OCT. Fifty-four percent of eyes with these imaging findings did not show a placoid retinal lesion on examination. Sixty-eighty percent of the described outer retinal lesions on OCT resolved after treatment for syphilis. Visual acuity ranged from normal (20/20) to no light perception, with a mean of 20/43 at diagnosis, and improved significantly to a mean visual acuity of 20/26 after treatment (P < 0.05). Vision-threatening complications were seen in less than 5% of eyes and included both treatable and irreversible causes of vision loss, including retinal detachment, cystoid macular edema, and optic neuropathy.

      Conclusions

      Patients treated for uveitis secondary to syphilis achieve good visual recoveries. Outer retinal lesions seen on OCT are common and can serve as an additional imaging finding of the disease.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations and Acronyms:

      ASPPC (acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis), CSF (cerebrospinal fluid), HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), IS/OS (inner segment and outer segment), IV (intravenous), RPE (retinal pigment epithelium), RPR (rapid plasma reagin)
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