Main Outcome Measures
Abbreviations and Acronyms:AMD (age-related macular degeneration), BCVA (best-corrected visual acuity), GA (geographic atrophy), CI (confidence interval), HR (hazard ratio), LEAD (Laser Intervention in the Early Stages of AMD), RPD (reticular pseudodrusen), SNL (subthreshold nanosecond laser)
- Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Lancet Global Health. 2014; 2 (e106–e16)
- A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss: AREDS report no. 8.Arch Ophthalmol. 2001; 119: 1417-1436
- Lutein + zeaxanthin and omega-3 fatty acids for age-related macular degeneration.JAMA. 2013; 309: 2005-2015
- Joint associations of diet, lifestyle, and genes with age-related macular degeneration.Ophthalmology. 2015; 122: 2286-2294
- Subthreshold nanosecond laser intervention in intermediate age-related macular degeneration: study design and baseline characteristics of the Laser in Early Stages of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Study (report number 1).Ophthalmol Retina. 2017; 1: 227-239
- Laser-mediated activation of human retinal pigment epithelial cells and concomitant release of matrix metalloproteinases.Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012; 53: 2928-2937
- Nanosecond laser therapy reverses pathologic and molecular changes in age-related macular degeneration without retinal damage.FASEB J. 2014; 29: 696-710
- Nanosecond-laser application in intermediate AMD: 12-month results of fundus appearance and macular function.Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2014; 42: 466-479
- Subthreshold nanosecond laser intervention in age-Related macular degeneration: the LEAD randomized controlled clinical trial.Ophthalmology. 2019; 126: 829-838
- Reticular pseudodrusen: current understanding.Clin Exp Optom. 2019; 102: 455-462
- Subretinal drusenoid deposits AKA pseudodrusen.Surv Ophthalmol. 2018; 63: 782-815
- Clinical classification of age-related macular degeneration.Ophthalmology. 2013; 129: 844-851
- Optical coherence tomography defined changes preceding the development of drusen-associated atrophy in age-related macular degeneration.Ophthalmology. 2014; 121: 2415-2422
- Prospective longitudinal evaluation of nascent geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration.Ophthalmol Retina. 2020; 4: 568-575
- Prophylactic treatment of age-related macular degeneration report number 1: 810-nanometer laser to eyes with drusen. Unilaterally eligible patients.Ophthalmology. 2006; 113: 612-622. e1
- Laser treatment in fellow eyes with large drusen: updated findings from a pilot randomized clinical trial.Ophthalmology. 2003; 110: 971-978
- Prophylactic laser treatment hastens choroidal neovascularization in unilateral age-related maculopathy: final results of the drusen laser study.Am J Ophthalmol. 2006; 141: 276-281
- Laser treatment of drusen to prevent progression to advanced age-related macular degeneration.Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2015; : CD006537
- Nanosecond pulse lasers for retinal applications.Lasers Surg Med. 2011; 43: 499-510
- Correlation of histologic features with in vivo imaging of reticular pseudodrusen.Ophthalmology. 2016; 123: 1320-1331
- Secondary and exploratory outcomes of the subthreshold nanosecond laser intervention randomized trial in age-related macular degeneration: a LEAD study report.Ophthalmol Retina. 2019; 3: 1026-1034
Publication stageIn Press Journal Pre-Proof
Supplemental material available at www.ophthalmologyretina.org.
Disclosure(s): All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE disclosures form.
The author(s) have made the following disclosure(s): R.H.G.: Financial support - Bayer, Novartis, Roche Genentech, Apellis F.K.C.: Financial support - Novartis, Bayer, Allergan, Heidelberg Engineering, Alcon, Pfizer C.A.H.: Financial support - Novartis, Bayer, Allergan; Board of directors – Australia S.S.W.: Financial support - Bayer, Allergan A.C.C.: Financial support - Bayer, Novartis
This study was supported by National Health & Medical Research Council of Australia (project grant no.: APP1027624 [RHG and CDL], and fellowship grant no.: GNT1103013 (RHG), APP1104985 [ZW], GNT1054712 [FKC], MRF1142962 [FKC] and GNT1128343 [SSW]). CERA receives operational infrastructure support from the Victorian Government. Ellex R&D Pty Ltd (Adelaide, Australia) provided partial funding of the central coordinating center and the in-kind provision of Ellex 2RTTM laser systems, ongoing support of those systems and the Macular Integrity Assessment microperimeters for the duration of the study. The web-based Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) application and open-source platform OpenClinica allowed secure electronic data capture. The study is sponsored by the Centre for Eye Research Australia (CERA), an independent medical research institute and a not-for-profit company.
HUMAN SUBJECTS: Human subjects were included in this study. The human ethics committees at all sites approved the study. All research adhered to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki. All participants provided informed consent.
No animal subjects were included in this study.
Conception and design: Guymer, Chen, Hodgson, Caruso, Harper, Wickremashinghe, Cohn, Sivarajah, Tindill, Luu, Wu
Analysis and interpretation: Guymer, Chen, Hodgson, Caruso, Harper, Wickremashinghe, Cohn, Sivarajah, Tindill, Luu, Wu
Data collection: Guymer, Chen, Hodgson, Caruso, Harper, Wickremashinghe, Cohn, Sivarajah, Tindill, Luu, Wu
Obtained funding: Guymer, Luu
Overall responsibility: Guymer, Chen, Hodgson, Caruso, Harper, Wickremashinghe, Cohn, Sivarajah, Tindill, Luu, Wu