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Genotype and Long-term Clinical Course of Bietti Crystalline Dystrophy in Korean and Japanese Patients

Published:February 22, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oret.2021.02.009

      Purpose

      To investigate the genotype and long-term clinical phenotype of patients with Bietti crystalline dystrophy (BCD) in Korea and Japan.

      Design

      Retrospective case series.

      Participants

      We analyzed 62 patients with clinical features of BCD who harbor pathogenic biallelic CYP4V2 variants in their homozygote or compound heterozygote.

      Methods

      Data were collected from patient charts, including age, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Goldmann perimetry results, fundus photography, OCT findings, fundus autofluorescence results, and electroretinography findings. We compared the clinical course of the patients with homozygous c.802-8_810de117insGC [exon7del], the most common mutation in the East Asian population, with those of the patients with other genotypes.

      Main Outcome Measures

      Best-corrected visual acuity, visual field (VF), and their changes during follow-up.

      Results

      The mean age at the first visit was 55.2 years, with a mean follow-up of 7.1 years. The mean BCVAs at the first and last visits were 0.28 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) and 0.89 logMAR, respectively. In genetic testing, c.802-8_810de117insGC was detected in 86 of 124 alleles of the patients, and 36 patients were homozygous for this mutation. The age, BCVA, VF area, central foveal thickness, and abnormal hypoautofluorescent area at either the first or last visit were not different between the exon7del homozygotes and the others. The mean BCVA changes per year were 0.089 logMAR in the exon7del homozygotes and 0.089 logMAR in the others. An age- and gender-adjusted linear regression analysis showed no association between the exon7del homozygote status and the rate of vision loss. Characteristic crystalline deposits in the posterior pole were generally observed in younger patients and disappeared over time along with progressive retinochoroidal atrophy.

      Conclusions

      Patients with BCD and a homozygote for c.802-8_810de117insGC accounted for more than 50% of this cohort of Korean and Japanese patients, and the clinical effect of this deleterious variant was not severe in the spectrum of CYP4V2 retinopathy.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations and Acronyms:

      BCD (Bietti crystalline dystrophy), BCVA (best-corrected visual acuity), FAF (fundus autofluorescence), logMAR (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution), NIR (near-infrared), RPE (retinal pigment epithelium), SW (short-wavelength), VF (visual field)
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