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Deep Learning Approach for Automated Detection of Myopic Maculopathy and Pathologic Myopia in Fundus Images

Published:February 18, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oret.2021.02.006

      Purpose

      To determine whether eyes with pathologic myopia can be identified and whether each type of myopic maculopathy lesion on fundus photographs can be diagnosed by deep learning (DL) algorithms.

      Design

      A DL algorithm was developed to recognize myopic maculopathy features and to categorize the myopic maculopathy automatically.

      Participants

      We examined 7020 fundus images from 4432 highly myopic eyes obtained from the Advanced Clinical Center for Myopia.

      Methods

      Deep learning (DL) algorithms were developed to recognize the key features of myopic maculopathy with 5176 fundus images. These algorithms were also used to develop a Meta-analysis for Pathologic Myopia (META-PM) study categorizing system (CS) by adding a specific processing layer. Models and the system were evaluated by 1844 fundus image. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity were used to determine the performance of each DL algorithm. The rate of correct predictions was used to determine the performance of the META-PM study CS.

      Main Outcome Measures

      Four trained DL models were able to recognize the lesions of myopic maculopathy accurately with high sensitivity and specificity. The META-PM study CS also showed a high accuracy and was qualified to be used in a semiautomated way during screening for myopic maculopathy in highly myopic eyes.

      Results

      The sensitivity of the DL models was 84.44% for diffuse atrophy, 87.22% for patchy atrophy, 85.10% for macular atrophy, and 37.07% for choroidal neovascularization, and the AUC values were 0.970, 0.978, 0.982, and 0.881, respectively. The rate of total correct predictions from the META-PM study CS was 87.53%, with rates of 90.18%, 95.28%, 97.50%, and 91.14%, respectively, for each type of lesion. The META-PM study CS showed an overall rate of 92.08% in detecting pathologic myopia correctly, which was defined as having myopic maculopathy equal to or more serious than diffuse atrophy.

      Conclusions

      The novel DL models and system can achieve high sensitivity and specificity in identifying the different types of lesions of myopic maculopathy. These results will assist in the screening for pathologic myopia and subsequent protection of patients against low vision and blindness caused by myopic maculopathy.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations and Acronyms:

      AUC (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve), CNN (convolutional neural network), CNV (choroidal neovascularization), CS (categorizing system), DL (deep learning), META-PM (Meta-analysis for Pathologic Myopia), SEED (Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases)
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